Almost all the lubricants in use are formulated from base oil. The formulation of lubricants begins with base oil, and a small amount of additives are added to the base oil to form lubricants.
Lubricating grease is also based on base oil, adding thickeners and a small amount of additives to form a viscous oil-like semi-solid. Because the main components of lubricating oil and grease are base oil, the grade of base oil can largely determine the performance of lubricating oil.
The American Petroleum Institute ( API ) divides the base oil into five categories, of which Class I, Class II and Class III are mineral oils, and Class IV and Class V are synthetic base oils.
Mineral oil : At present, most lubricating oils and greases use mineral oil as base oil. Because of sufficient raw materials, the price is relatively low.
Synthetic oil : Synthetic oil refers to the use of gas, natural gas and other raw materials, through complex chemical means such as polymerization, catalysis and other means of preparation of oil, their performance is a chemist 's masterpiece, the disadvantage is that the price is relatively expensive.
Synthetic oil has unique performance. It can meet the requirements that general mineral oil cannot meet : it can withstand higher temperatures, has good fluidity at low temperatures, has stronger oxidation resistance, and prolongs the oil change cycle. In addition, in some special applications such as vacuum and radiation, flammable and explosive, contact with chemicals and other environmental conditions and the need to contact with rubber, plastic components of the occasion.
1 ) API-I oil
Category I oil is a kind of mineral oil refined by solvent. It is the cheapest base oil on the market with a temperature range of 0 ~ 65 °C.
2 ) API-II oil
Category II oil is the oil with hydrotreating. The color is clearer than that of a class of oil, and the price is more expensive.
3 ) API-III oil
This kind of oil is hydroisomerized, and the oil is more pure than the second kind of oil. Although it is prepared from crude oil, the third kind of oil is sometimes classified as synthetic oil.
4 ) API-IV oil
The fourth type of API oil refers to poly-α-olefin ( PAO ).It can adapt to a wider range of high temperature and low temperature, so it can meet the application environment of cold and high temperature.
5 ) API-V oil
Common in this category include polyethers. Sometimes people will mix this kind of oil with other types of base oils to improve the performance of lubricating oil in some aspects.
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